Evaluation of the attainment of the sustainable development goal on the elimination of all forms of violence against women and girls in Nigeria: A case of Oyo State, Nigeria
Fagbamigbe, Adeniyi Francis
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ABSTRACT Violence against women (VAW) remains a worldwide public health and psycho-social challenge associated with a wide range of negative consequences. Besides physical consequences, the health and psychological/emotional effects are overreaching. These motivated the sustainable development goals on health for all with targets on the eradication of all forms of VAW. The objectives of this study are to determine the level of VAW in the study area and to assess associated factors, barriers to ending and perpetrators of different types of VAW in Oyo State, Nigeria. The ecological model and feminist theory were adopted. A cross-sectional mixed method study comprising of quantitative and qualitative methods were used. The 2018 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey data collected from women of reproductive age was used. The data of respondents from Oyo State were extracted. Qualitative data were collected during 2 Focus Group Discussion (FGD) of 11 participants each and 2 Key-Informant Interview (KII) in February 2020. The independent variables include women age, education, location, employment, religion, and ethnicity. Basic descriptive statistics were used. Chi-square test was used to test the association between the experience of violence and background characteristics of the respondents. Bivariate and multiple logistic binary regression were used to identify the factors associated with VAW at p=0.05. Data were analysed using Stata version 16 and Nvivo version 13. Of the 300 ever-partnered women who participated in the quantitative data, one-fourth was from the North while 37.7% and 36.3% were from the South and Central senatorial districts respectively. Nearly half (47.0%) was aged 35-49 years and 41.2% aged 25-34 years. The lifetime prevalence of emotional, physical, sexual and financial violence was 13.8%, 12.2%, 2.6% and 20.5% compared with recent prevalence at 10.6%, 7.6%, 3.5% and 20.5% respectively. While 6% of the respondents stated that “wife-beating” is acceptable and 23% were sometimes afraid of partners, the KII and FGD participants agreed that VAW is unacceptable. Risk of VAW doubled among women in Oyo Central (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 2.17, 95% CI: 1.07-4.84, p=0.0457) than in Oyo North but insignificantly higher in Oyo South. Likelihood of VAW was five times higher in urban than in rural areas (aOR = 4.95, 95% CI: 1.53-16.06, p=0.008) and was 83% lower among women whose husbands had no education than those whose spouses had higher education (aOR = 0.17, 95% CI: 0.03-0.93, p=0.042). The adjusted odds of VAW was higher among women whose spouse accuse of unfaithfulness (OR = 3.49, 95% CI: 1.31-18.86, p=0.039). Over 63% of VAW were committed by husbands. Violence remained prevalent in the study area, commoner in urban areas and Oyo Central. The SDG goal on the eradication of VAW is far from been achieved. The existing laws on anti-violence are weak and were not enforced. There are needs to re-orientate the community members, strengthen the existing anti-violence laws and enforce the laws if the SDG on VAW is to be achieved in the study area and Africa. Policymakers should design evidence-based, community-feasible and community-suitable interventions to halt VAW.
Africa Nazarene University