Evaluation of the influence of security drills on counter terrorism preparedness at Jomo Kenyatta International Airport, Nairobi, Kenya
Mutwiwa, David Mutua Ogw
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Kenya has been hit by isolated terrorist attacks since her intervention in Somalia as part of Operation Linda Nchi and later AMISOM. Such attacks with the glaring ones including Westgate mall attack, Garissa university attack and Dusit D-2 complex attack exposed the vulnerabilities present in Kenya's preparedness for such security threats. Security agencies have embarked on using security drills to enhance emergency response. This study therefore aimed at evaluating the influence the post security drill approaches have on counter terrorism preparedness at JKIA. This was through evaluation of the post drill capacity building of security apparatus, assessment of the effectiveness of post drill emergency training offered to responders and analyzing the effects of multi-agency co-ordination on preparedness. To theorize objectives, the conditioned response theory of learning by Pavlov, 1926 and the inoculation theory by William J. McGuire in 1961 were utilized. This descriptive study clustered the different security agencies at the airport before conducting a simple random sampling on each cluster to select respondents of the questionnaires. Additionally, purposive sampling was conducted to determine respondents of key informant interviews. The study estimated a population of 252 security and emergency response personnel from the different clusters of security agencies within the airport. It then applied both qualitative and quantitative methodologies for data collection and analysis through the administration of a questionnaire and key informant interviews. The study subjected the study population to the Yamane formula of sample size calculation and obtained 154 personnel as the sample size. The analysis provided an objective measure of the influence of drills to preparedness through assessment of post-drill security posture of the target population. On the first objective, security drills are conducted in the institution after every two years. Majority of respondents were aware of available fire response emergency Standard Operating Procedures (SOP’s) and had been trained in them, however, a majority were not aware of existence of SOP’s of some contemporary emergency threats such as bomb threats and hostage situations/active shooter incidences. On the second objective, technological advancements such as installation of CCTV and digital walk through scanners have been incorporated to augment physical security with an emergency operations Centre in the pipeline. On the third objective, it was established that with every preceding drill, the response rate, multi-agency co-ordination of effort and unification of command improved immensely. The study concluded that fire and aircraft crash drills were the most conducted with less attention given to bomb threat drills, terrorist attacks, chemical and biological threats. Training is conducted at the department level mostly at entry level and most of the departmental response plans were not regularly rehearsed. It recommends emphasis on using of the post drill training through the CTRBT model by Biddle, 2013. Moreover, use of technology to tackle terrorism coupled with inculcation of technology and innovation towards creating situational awareness for responders and acquisition of correct equipment to counter arising scenarios is recommended.
Africa Nazarene University