Factors influencing the integration of ICT in teaching and learning. A case of public primary schools in Kitui Central Sub County, Kitui County, Kenya
Muia, Regina Kavinya
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Integrating technology into classroom practices is one of the challenges in the 21st century. Effectively integrating ICT into teaching learning process is much more complicated than providing computers and securing a connection to the Internet. The purpose of the study was to investigate the factors influencing integration of ICT in teaching and learning in public primary schools in Kitui Central Sub County. The study objectives were to assess the influence of teachers’ ICT literacy, to establish the influence of teachers’ attitude, and to examine the influence of availability of ICT resources on ICT integration in teaching and learning in public primary schools in Kitui Central Sub County. The study was anchored on the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) Model for Technology Integration in teaching and learning and the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). The study adopted descriptive survey research design. The study targeted 70 head teachers and 1053 teachers from 70 public primary schools. Through simple random sampling, 21 head teachers and 105 teachers were selected for the study. Data was collected through the head teachers’ interview schedule and teachers’ questionnaire. To ascertain reliability and validity of research instruments, the Pilot testing was conducted in the neighboring Kitui West Sub County. Reliability of the research instruments was calculated using test-retest technique obtaining a coefficient of 0.84. Content and construct validity were ascertained through the university supervisors’ scrutiny and pilot testing. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. Descriptive statistics included frequencies, means and standard deviations while multiple regression analysis was used to test the formulated three hypotheses. Qualitative data was put into broad themes for interpretation. However, some qualitative data was used verbatim in order to maintain the power of the participants’ spoken words. The study found that teachers’ ICT literacy was low, attitude towards ICT integration moderately positive while availability of ICT resources was moderate. The study’s three independent variables contributed 62.3 % of variance in the level of ICT integration in teaching and learning (R2 = 0.623). Teachers’ ICT literacy was the most potent predictor of ICT integration (β = 0.568, t(89) = 5.365, p < 0.05). It is hoped that the findings will serve as an important feedback to the government in regard to the National ICT policy on Education and Digital Learning Programme which was meant, ostensibly, to entrench information and communication technology (ICT) in the teaching and learning process in primary schools in Kenya. The study recommends that the MOE should organize frequent compulsory in service training to equip all teachers with the appropriate skills and knowledge in ICT.
Africa Nazarene University