Effects of improvised explosive device attacks on livelihoods of the people of Mandera East Sub- County, Mandera County , Kenya
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Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) continues to be an everyday threat to citizens in disputes across the globe, and universally for ages, have been a selected armament for non-state armed groups. This has been attributed to the proliferation of terrorist groups which have carried out attacks against security agencies and civilians alike. As a result, statistically, many deaths have been caused by IED attacks. In Kenya, since the Kenya Defence Forces (KDF) joined the African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) on 14 October 2011, there was sudden rise in retaliatory attacks targeting civilians and security personnel. These attacks have disrupted the livelihoods of people, especially those living along the porous Kenya-Somalia border. This study, therefore, sought to examine the effects of IED attacks on the livelihoods of the people of Mandera East Sub-County, Mandera County, Kenya. The specific objectives of the study were to examine the economic effects of IED attacks on the livelihood of the people of Mandera East Sub-County, assess the social effects of IED attacks on livelihoods of the people of Mandera East Sub-County, and examine the measures in place to mitigate the effects of IED attacks on the livelihoods of the people of Mandera East Sub-County. The study was based on Johan Galtung model and deterrence theory. The study employed a descriptive survey design in which detailed information, both quantitative and qualitative was sought through questionnaires and interviews. The study was limited to Mandera East Sub-County in Mandera County, which has a population of 159,638. The sampled respondents were 395 household heads. Stratified sampling was used to select the sample. The researcher developed a set of questionnaires that was administered to the respondents. A key informant interview was used to corroborate the findings of the study. Pilot study was done before the actual data collection. Quantitative data was analyzed and presented in form of figures and tables, while qualitative data, that entailed responses from interviews and the open-ended answers in the questionnaire, were classified into major themes based on objectives, presented in verbatim to corroborate the quantitative data. Furthermore, it was established that, as much as the government security agencies had put in place measures to counter the IED attacks, their prevalence was still commonplace. It was concluded that, indeed IED attacks affect the economic and social livelihoods of the people of Mandera East Sub County. As such, it is recommended that the security agencies broaden their perspective by tackling the economic and social needs of the people and involve the locals through community policing in a bid to ensure that potential threats are detected well in advance, acted upon, and prevented. It is expected that the study will be of benefit to the security agencies, scholars in peace and conflict, and the policy makers.
Africa Nazarene University