Contribution of the multiagency approach to security in the fight against terrorism in Kenya: A case of disciplined forces
Kibusia, Joseph Kalyamoi
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Countries throughout the world are struggling with the threat of terrorism that has devastated many states, leaving in its wake many casualties and destruction of unquantifiable proportions. In the wake of devastating acts of terror between 2013 and 2015, Kenya adopted the multiagency approach to security in the fight against terrorism to prevent, counter and respond to acts of terrorism. However, since the adoption of the multiagency approach in the fight against terrorism, little is known about the motivation behind its adoption, its structure and how effective the approach has been. These are the issues the study sought to establish. The study was guided by the realism and system theories. The descriptive survey design formed the blueprint guiding the study. A target population of 1310 comprising of the Antiterrorism Police, Kenya Defense Forces, National Intelligence Service, Directorate of Criminal Investigations and policy makers from the state department responsible for security was identified, from which a sample size of 306 was obtained to participate in the study. A mix of sampling techniques, specifically maximum variation, purposive and snowball sampling were used in settling on the sample population. The sample size for this formula was calculated using Yamane’s formula. A questionnaire and an interview schedule were used to collect data after which the collected quantitative data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and the qualitative data analyzed based on the content of the themes emerging from the research objectives. The results of the data analysis were then presented using graphs, charts and tables. The study established that leveraging the capabilities of each security agency, success of multiagency approach in some countries across the world and the need to synchronize operations of Kenya’s various security agencies significantly motivated the decision by state security actors to formally sanction formation of a multiagency team responsible for fighting terrorism in Kenya. The findings further demonstrated that the multiagency approach is well structured, with clear leadership, a coordination mechanism and clear responsibilities for team members cascaded from the national strategic level to the operational level in the field. In terms of effectiveness, the study found that the multiagency approach had significantly strengthened the fight against terrorism, thus making the country more secure as evidenced by a reduction in incidences of acts of terror as well as fatalities, particularly in the period after 2015 when the Security Amendment Laws (2014) and other pieces of legislation were reviewed to strengthen functioning of multiagency teams in defence of the homeland and more so address the threat of terrorism. In conclusion, the multiagency approach has positively contributed to the fight against terrorism in Kenya. It is anticipated the study findings may benefit the various government security agencies charged with the mandate to secure the country from all aggression and more so terrorism, security actors responsible for policy making and academics willing to conduct further research on the study area.
Africa Nazarene University