Factors affecting the effectiveness of payment for ecosystem services scheme in the upper catchment areas of river Malewa in Nyandarua county, Kenya
Malel, Eva Chepkorir
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Human beings have been exerting growing impact on earth’s ecosystems as they seek various ecosystem services resulting in ecosystem degradation. To mitigate degradation, motivational approaches such as Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) have been used to provide incentives to land owners to undertake environmental conservation measures. Due to degradation in River Malewa upper catchment resulting from agricultural production, PES scheme was introduced to provide incentive for farmers to carry out environmental conservation measures with a view to enhancing water quality and quantity in River Malewa which recharges Lake Naivasha. The aim of this study was to evaluate how selected factors affect the Effectiveness of Payment for Ecosystem Services (EPES) scheme in River Malewa upper catchment, Nyandarua County. The selected factors considered included: socio-economic characteristics of the households (age, sex, land size and land tenure), land use types (agro-pastoralism, crop farming and livestock keeping), capacity building, and mode of payment for environmental practices. The study used a descriptive survey research design. The target population was 3600 individuals that are current residents of Kianjogu, Wanjohi and Upper Turasha within River Malewa upper catchment. A stratified random sample of 260 respondents was interviewed using a structured questionnaire. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics provided for in Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS version 25) software. The analyzed data was presented using frequency distribution tables and multiple regression analysis to bring out the relationship between the independent and dependent variables. The study found out that the majority of the farmers had very significantly (χ2 =137.36, df=2, p<.001) high levels EPES (4-5 on a scale of 1-5). Land use diversification (agro-pastoralism) was found to have higher effects on the EPES than crop and livestock farming. Capacity building had significant (β= 430, t=7.657, p< .001) effect on EPES and mode of payment (β= 494, t=9.133, p< .001). The socio-economic characteristics (age, sex and land size) did not show significant effects, while land tenure did (β= 313, t=5.273, p< .001). The results indicate that to have an effective PES the scheme should have secure land tenure, capacity building, diversified land use types, and a good mode of payment system. This study will provide the stakeholders involved in the management of the river Malewa watershed with information on the factors that need to be considered in designing and up scaling future PES scheme so as to manage the natural resources for sustainable environmental services.
Africa Nazarene University